Search, discover, and learn about wildlife. Birds are attracted to these trees to feed on the abundance of insects. The leaves have coarse teeth on the margins and turn golden yellow in the fall. Prefers gravel to sandy soils that flood periodically. The Cahuilla people of southern California used the tree's wood for tool making, the Pueblo peoples for drums, and the Lower Colorado River Quechan people in ritual cremations. Does not like wet feet. These may either be gray or green in color. We're on the ground in seven regions across the country, collaborating with 53 state and territory affiliates to reverse the crisis and ensure wildlife thrive. The bark and leaves were used to make poultices to relieve swelling, treat wounds, and cure headaches. The ends of the twigs are usually covered with a brown balsam-scented resin. The leaves have coarse teeth on the margins and turn golden yellow in the fall. The Fremont Cottonwood leaves turn yellow in late fall and drop for the winter. Does not like wet feet. Cottonwood Fremont. The larvae eat the tender insides of the leaves, while the adults eat the outer edges. Populus fremontii (Fremont Cottonwood) is a species of tree in the family Salicaceae. Fremont's cottonwood trees range from 12 to 35 meters in height, and trunk diameter ranges from 0.30 to 1.5 meters. The tree was named after 19th century American explorer and pathfinder John C. Frémont. Plant Name. Flattened stems attach these leaves to branches. Raptors often use cottonwoods for nest sites. Lanceleaf is a hybrid variety (populus x acuminata). Leaves of Fremont’s Cottonwood. The dangling leaves clatter in the wind. The fruit they produce is a small, light brown egg-shaped capsule that splits three ways to disseminate many small seeds covered with cotton-like fluff for wind dispersal. Pronunciation: pop-U-lus free-MONT-e-i. Cottonwood trees are native to various parts of North America. Family: Salicaceae. Also, ground-water pumping lowers local and regional water tables and reduces stream flow, which can eliminate or weaken riparian vegetation. Populus fremontii S. Watson – Fremont cottonwood Subordinate Taxa. Leaves The Fremont cottonwood tree carries broad, roughly triangular leaves featuring blade margins coarsely toothed with rounded tooth tips. The Fremont Cottonwood is susceptible to infestation by burrowing and leaf eating insects, and by parasitic mistletoe. In 2012, it had a measured circumference of 557 inches (14,100 mm), height of 102 feet (31 m), and a spread of 149.5 feet (45.6 m). It can also grow to taller heights and have a wider trunk. Wind passes smoothly over a round stem, but catches on a flattened stem, causing a lot of movement. Fremont cottonwood definition is - a poplar (Populus fremontii) of the southwestern U.S. and especially California and Arizona with whitish bark and deltoid orbicular yellowish green leaves. Has Deciduous foliage. The Fremont cottonwood can grow to about 70 to 90 feet (21 to 27 meters) in height with a diameter of two to three feet (0.6 to 0.9 meters). Bark: Smooth and gray on young trees, thick and furrowed on old. Prefers gravel to sandy soils that flood periodically. Tree Characteristics. Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides), nearly 30 metres (100 feet) tall, has thick glossy leaves. A fast shade tree for dry hot interior climates. Fast-growing, Populus fremontii (Western Cottonwood) is an upright-spreading deciduous tree with stout branches clad with heart-shaped, bright green leaves turning a lovely yellow in fall. Width: 30 - 50 feet. President and CEO Collin O’Mara reveals in a TEDx Talk why it is essential to connect our children and future generations with wildlife and the outdoors—and how doing so is good for our health, economy, and environment. The Rio Grande cottonwood, a welcome sight to pioneers in the desert because it often signaled water, typically reaches 50 to 60 feet in height, with a trunk of three feet in diameter. Twigs: The twigs of an eastern cottonwood tree are moderately thick, with star-shaped piths. It is one of three species in Populus sect. Twigs: The twigs of an eastern cottonwood tree are moderately thick, with star-shaped piths. Populus fremontii is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a fast rate. The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Populus fremontii . They prefer cottonwood, basket willow and other poplars. Even the hint of a breeze sets the bright green leaves fluttering. They prefer cottonwood… It has a self-supporting growth form. Fremont Cottonwood Populus fremontii. Populus fremontii ssp. Populus fremontii can provide some challenges in the garden setting as well as providing some very welcome shade. WESTERN COTTONWOOD, FREMONT COTTONWOOD, GILA COTTONWOOD. The leaves are heart-shaped with white veins and coarse crenate teeth along the sides. The bark of the young trees and upper limbs of older trees are smooth whitish-gray. Identification: Habit: Populus fremontii is a deciduous tree that has an open habit with thick, broadly spread branches. It requires moist soil for its seeds to germinate. Native Americans ate the inner bark of Fremont cottonwood for antiscorbutic. Leaves alternate, simple, broad oval-rounded to rhombic or triangular, 7-8 cm long, broader than long, short acuminate tip, base wedge-shaped to cordate, margin with course teeth, petiole yellow and flattened, upper leaf surface shiny yellow-green, sometimes pubescent beneath, may turn lemon-yellow in fall; in mild areas they may remain on the tree for much of the winter. Cottonwood Leaf Beetle. Some of the grand old cottonwoods in the Rio Grande Valley have reached 90 feet in height, with trunks five feet across. The tree was named after 19th century American explorer and pathfinder John C. Frémont. Family: Salicaceae. Common Name: COTTONWOOD Habit: Tree.Stem: 40 m; young bark smooth, pale yellow-green to gray; older bark furrowed, brown to gray; twigs with swellings below leaf scars; winter bud generally resinous, scales > 3.Leaf: juvenile, adult, late-season leaves may differ in size, shape, hairiness; generally glabrous; blade 3--11 cm, elliptic to deltate, veins pinnate or +- palmate, tip generally elongate. When the tree is young, the bark, branches, and twigs are smooth. Lanceleaf is a hybrid variety (populus x acuminata). Photo taken at: Tuzigoot Bridge (leaves) and Deadhorse Ranch State Park (tree, bark) 9/99 Bloom Color: Male - Yellow to red catkins, Female - Green clusters of small flowers Other Common Names: Cottonwood Comments: This is the common Cottonwood of the Verde Valley, and most of Arizona. of cotton. It is a photoautotroph. Width: 30 - 50 feet. Aigeiros. Individuals can grow to 22 m. Aigeiros.The tree was named after 19th century American explorer and pathfinder John C. Frémont. A Young Fremont Cottonwood after a recent fire. Many of the small groves of Fremont Cottonwood burned in the fire of 2008 so I have few good photos of this tree. Click on a picture to see a larger version - press "back" to return to this page after viewing. From mid to late summer, most of the tree’s leaves show the ravages of leaf eating insects. It occurs naturally in mixed woodlands or along streams below 9,000′. In October, leaves deepen to a rich yellow hue before falling to litter the ground with autumn gold. Fremont Cottonwoods require moist soil and plenty of sun, but are tough and easy to grow. Leaves of Fremont’s Cottonwood. Growth Rate: 36 Inches per Year. Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremontii) • Medium to tall tree with broad, open crown, usually 50 to 75 feet in height with trunk diameters of 1 to 4 feet. Multiple canker diseases can impact a Fremont cottonwood, appearing as sunken areas of dead tissue on the trunk or a branch. The leaves are attached to branches loosely and flutter in the wind. They are most abundant in areas near water. This was a surprise to me when I learned that not only are cottonwood leaves edible but they are extremely nutritious. It has a broad, open crown and stout, widely spread branches. It is dioecious, meaning it can have either male or female reproductive parts. Height: 40 - 80 feet. [7], Two subspecies are currently recognized. Flowers: Male flowers bright red, female flowers green (March-April). The tree is native to the Southwestern United States and Mexico. This large, deep-rooted tree grows in washes, canyons, and bottomlands with surface or at least subsurface water. Rounded or Spreading Shape. Edibility of Cottonwood Leaves. Fremont Cottonwood Leaves Flowers: Catkins 2-3 1/2″ long, reddish; male and female on separate trees in early spring. Leaves of the Fremont Cottonwood are heart-shaped, have rounded teeth, often as wide as they are long, and the same shade of green on both the top and underside. Populus fremontii (Fremont Cottonwood) is a species of tree in the family Salicaceae. Cankers. Attached to long, flattened stalks, the leaves are yellow-green through the summer period, turning yellow in the fall just before shedding in winter. Populus fremontii is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a fast rate. A hybrid between this and Eurasian black poplar (P. nigra) is P. canadensis. Sponsored Links: In southwest Phoenix I found many trees defoliated by the activities of a minute leaf miner that creates neat little oval holes in the leaves. Aigeiros. For example, the Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) is native to the southwestern United States but also is hardy in other areas within U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 9. It's an important plant for birds and butterflies. • Usually occurs with coyote willow. The trees are also important for stabilizing stream banks, producing debris that provides habitat for fish, and providing erosion control and shade. It occurs naturally in mixed woodlands or along streams below 9,000′. Uniting all Americans to ensure wildlife thrive in a rapidly changing world, Inspire a lifelong connection with wildlife and wild places through our children's publications, products, and activities, National Wildlife Federation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Fremont Cottonwood Leaves Flowers: Catkins 2-3 1/2″ long, reddish; male and female on separate trees in early spring. Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremontii) • Medium to tall tree with broad, open crown, usually 50 to 75 feet in height with trunk diameters of 1 to 4 feet. • From 2,000 to 6,500 feet, mostly in the southern portion of the region. The inner bark of Frémont's cottonwood contains vitamin C and was chewed as an antiscorbutic, or treatment for vitamin C deficiency. As one of the major overstory trees in riparian areas of the western United States, and since riparian areas are some of the most productive wildlife habitats, the Fremont cottonwood is one of the most important plant species to western wildlife. It may be best known for its shade and gently whispering leaves on … The Fremont Cottonwood can grow to 60 feet tall and wide in a short period of time and if the conditions are right even larger. In early-mid spring, clusters of long drooping catkins appear on separate male and female trees. Flowers: Male flowers bright red, female flowers green (March-April). Cottonwoods can live for more than 130 years. Height: 40 - 80 feet. [10], John C. Frémont botanical nomenclature eponyms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Populus_fremontii&oldid=995101015, Natural history of the California Coast Ranges, Natural history of the Central Valley (California), Natural history of the Lower Colorado River Valley, Natural history of the Santa Monica Mountains, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 06:24. Forest Stewardship Notes, Washington State University Extension and DNR Small Forest Landowner Office, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, The University of Texas at Austin, The Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, Virginia Tech, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. The leaves are cordate (heart-shaped) with white veins and coarse crenate-serrate teeth on the margins. Populus fremontii, commonly known as Frémont's cottonwood, is a cottonwood (and thus a poplar) native to riparian zones of the Southwestern United States and northern through central Mexico. The Pima people of southern Arizona and northern Mexico lived along Sonoran Desert watercourses and used twigs from the tree in the fine and intricate baskets they wove. These trees come under the USDA hardiness rating of zone 2-9. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). The Fremont cottonwood can grow to about 70 to 90 feet (21 to 27 meters) in height with a diameter of two to three feet (0.6 to 0.9 meters). Bark: Smooth and gray on young trees, thick and furrowed on old. Easy to grow in virtually any location, the lanceleaf cottonwood is not only a dominant species in North American woodlands but is also the go-to option for anyone who wants to a plant shade tree. Scientific Name: Populus fremontii. Cottonwoods dominate the riparian forests of lower terrace deposits and stabilized gravel bars. Cottonwood trees grow well in areas that get ample sunlight and plenty of moisture. [2] It is one of three species in Populus sect. The narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) is hardy in USDA zones 6 through 9 and is a native of California and Mexico while the eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is native to eastern North America, as far south as northern Flo… Populus fremontii can provide some challenges in the garden setting as well as providing some very welcome shade. More than one-third of U.S. fish and wildlife species are at risk of extinction in the coming decades. Western Cottonwood. 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