El Banco BCI tuvo la gentileza de invitarme a una conferencia con el historiador británico Niall Ferguson en la que se refirió a la pandemia del Covid-19, al libro que publicará sobre la historia de los desastres y a otras cuestiones planteadas por los invitados. El historiador escocés Niall Ferguson sabe bien de lo que habla. Niall Ferguson es autor y desarrollador de una serie de televisión conocida como “The Ascent of Money”. Avda San Luis 25 - 28033 Madrid, Saltar a navegación principal (Pulse Enter). Even the much less trusted Facebook (according to polls) will be hard to dismantle, without a complete transformation of the way the courts apply competition law. First, we need to repeal or significantly amend Section 230, making the network platforms legally liable for the content they host, and leaving the rest to the courts. Earlier this month, the House Judiciary Committee’s Antitrust Subcommittee released the findings of its 16-month long investigation into Big Tech. No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be held liable on account of any action voluntarily taken in good faith to restrict access to or availability of material that the provider or user considers to be obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, excessively violent, harassing or otherwise objectionable. Earlier this month, the company deleted all QAnon accounts from its platforms. Diego Sánchez de la Cruz Seguir a diegodelacruz Archivado en: Twitter; The pathologies that flow from this new reality are numerous. A bit of both, I suspect. Subject to the most minimal regulation in their country of origin — far less than the TV networks in their heyday — the network platforms tend, because of their central imperative to sell the attention of their users to advertisers, to pollute national discourse with a torrent of fake news and extreme views. (Start with Yevgeny Zamyatin’s astonishingly prescient “We.”), The lowliest employees of big tech companies — the content moderators whose job it is to spot bad stuff online — offer a rather different perspective. That is the whole idea. Far from addressing the glaring problems created by the rise of the network platforms that now dominate the American (and indeed the global) public sphere, we largely decided to shut our eyes and ears to them. Niall Ferguson, MA, D.Phil., is the Milbank Family Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University, and a senior faculty fellow of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard, where he served for twelve years as the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History. It states: In essence, Section 230 gave and still gives websites immunity from liability for what their users post (under-filtering), but it also protects them when they choose to remove content (over-filtering). ), Also read: Facebook, Twitter show they’re willing to make tough decisions. US tops Lowy index but China is catching up, India ranks 4th, Twitter POTUS account will reset followers to zero when Joe Biden takes office, Mark Zuckerberg’s attempt to relaunch Libra deserves a fair chance, Google and Microsoft invest in TikTok rival, India’s Josh app, India noticed ‘super-spreading’ Covid strain in March-May but it died on its own, expert says, Maj Gen KK Sinha — retired Army officer whose comments are in focus after Republic fined in UK, Compare lung sizes of Indian and US children, you’ll know who air pollution affects most. Por si no fuera suficiente coincidencia, Ferguson recordaba también que la agitación coincidió con el brote d, Además, con cualquiera de nuestros planes, te reembolsamos dos meses de tu suscripción a través de, Consulta los términos y condiciones del servicio, © Unidad Editorial Información General, S.L.U. But there has been mission creep. A Pew study showed that, at the end of 2019, 18% of them relied primarily on social media for political news. Bitcoin has slowed its roll since hitting 20,000. Disinformation fight begins. Niall Campbell Ferguson (/ ˈ n iː l /; born 18 April 1964) is a Scottish-American historian and the Milbank Family Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. How did we arrive at this state of affairs — when such important components of the public sphere could operate solely with regard to their own profitability as attention merchants? Good luck, too, with breaking up Google. (As one of them described the process, “I was like, ‘I can just block this entire domain, and they won’t be able to serve ads on it?’ And the answer was, ‘Yes.’ I was like, ‘But … I’m in my mid-twenties.’”). Another influential way of describing the network platforms is as the “New Governors.” That creeps me out the way Zuckerberg’s admiration of Augustus Caesar creeps me out. Asimismo es profesor del Jesus College, de la Universidad de Oxford, y de la Hoover Institution, de la Universidad de Stanford. Previously, a company that managed content was classified as a publisher, and subject to civil liability — creating a perverse incentive not to manage content at all. I see big, bad harlots. At a lecture at Georgetown University in October 2019, Zuckerberg pledged “to continue to stand for free expression” and against an “ever-expanding definition of what speech is harmful.”  But even Facebook has had to ramp up the censorship this year. Here’s how Catch-22 works. Facebook, Twitter, Google can’t be good censors of politics, Niall Ferguson says Silicon Valley didn't just play a highly questionable role in the 2020 US elections but also in … The top U.S. tech companies are now among the biggest businesses on earth by market capitalization. En una entrevista reciente, comenta por qué bitcoin es un activo tan grande en este momento y por qué es posiblemente el mejor activo para tener una vez que la pandemia de coronavirus haya terminado. Antitrust actions address none of them. “Apple, Amazon, Google and Facebook each possess significant market power over large swaths of our economy. I’m staggered by how few even mention the role of the internet and social media. And there are network effects on the internet that can’t be wished away by judges. Yes. He is also a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University, and a … ... Como muestra el libro, las plataformas como Twitter o Facebook incitan a la polarización. Is it stupidity or venality that has convinced America’s legislators that antitrust is the answer to the problem of Big Tech? The core problem is not a lack of competition in Silicon Valley. Niall Ferguson es un alto miembro de la Institución Hoover en la Universidad de Stanford y del Centro para Estudios Europeos en la Universidad de Harvard. There have been brutal layoffs and pay-cuts. Meanwhile, in Packingham v. North Carolina (2017), the Supreme Court overturned a state law that banned sex offenders from using social media. In 2019, the average American spent 6 hours and 35 minutes a day using digital media, more than television, radio and print put together. Sustaining journalism of this quality needs smart and thinking people like you to pay for it. Andy Stone, the former Democratic Party staffer who is now Facebook’s policy communications manager, announced that his company would be “reducing” the “distribution” of the Post story. Also read: US election sees record $11 billion in campaign spending, mostly from few super-rich donors. And I am pretty doubtful that the meeting, if indeed it happened, was the reason Biden demanded that the Ukrainian government fire its prosecutor general, Viktor Shokin, who was investigating Burisma. In the words of Judge Alex Kozinski in Fair Housing Council v. Roommate.com (2008), “the Internet has outgrown its swaddling clothes and no longer needs to be so gently coddled.” He was referring to Section 230, which gives the tech giants a now-indefensible advantage over traditional publishers, while at the same time empowering them to act as censors. In 1931, British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin accused the principal newspaper barons of the day, Lords Beaverbrook and Rothermere, of “aiming at … power, and power without responsibility — the prerogative of the harlot throughout the ages.” (The phrase was his cousin Rudyard Kipling’s.) Quite apart from the bountiful campaign contributions Harris and the rest of Democratic Party elite receive from Big Tech, they have no problem at all with Facebook, Twitter and company seeking to kill stories like Huntergate. I don’t know if, as the New York Post alleged last week, Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden met with a Ukrainian energy executive named Vadym Pozharskyi in 2015. Lo peor es que la sobrerreacción ha causado una recesión que va a ser más dañina que la enfermedad. About. Niall Ferguson: "Debe preocuparnos más una guerra religiosa que la III Guerra Mundial" ... pero, en fin, en 1914 o 1939 no existía Facebook ni Twitter. Second, we need to impose the equivalent of First Amendment obligations on the network platforms, recognizing that they are too dominant a part of the public sphere to be able to regulate access to it on the basis of their own privately determined and almost certainly skewed “community standards.”. EL TRIUNFO DEL DINERO del autor NIALL FERGUSON (ISBN 9788483068137). Niall Ferguson (Glasgow, 1964) es uno de los historiadores más preeminentes de su generación. On this episode of Bitcoin Magazine’s “Bitcoin In Asia,” Niall Ferguson joins host John Riggins for a wide-ranging conversation about Bitcoin and the evolution of finance. En un comentario reciente, aprovechaba por ejemplo las recientes revueltas tras la muerte de George Floyd a manos de un policía en Minneapolis para evocar el tumultuoso 1968. It has measurably reduced the prices of innumerable products as well as rendering shopping in bricks-and-mortar stores an obsolescent activity. Ltd. All rights reserved. Niall Ferguson: Bitcoin […] The platforms will finally discover that there are risks to being a publisher and responsibilities that come with near-universal usage. When talking among themselves, Silicon Valley big shots sometimes say weird things. Previously, he was a professor at Harvard University and New York University, visiting professor at New College of the Humanities and senior research fellow at Jesus College, Oxford. Niall Ferguson on Why Bitcoin and China Are Winning the Monetary Revolution The well-known economic historian connects the dots between bitcoin and CBDCs in the COVID-19 money era. India needs free, fair, non-hyphenated and questioning journalism even more as it faces multiple crises. Niall Ferguson, MA, D.Phil., is Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University. It is that the same was true in 2016 and, despite a great many fine words and some minor pieces of legislation, Americans did nothing about it. Thus, Section 230c, “Protection for ‘Good Samaritan’ blocking and screening of offensive material,” was written to encourage nascent firms to protect users and prevent illegal activity without incurring massive content-management costs. Avda San Luis 25 - 28033 Madrid, Unidad Editorial Información General, S.L.U. No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider. Niall Ferguson (Glasgow, 1964) es uno de los historiadores más preeminentes de su generación. Among those aged 30 to 49, the share was 40%; among those aged 18 to 29, it was 48%. In other words, despite being private companies, the big tech companies have a public function. Niall Ferguson’s Networld (8 p.m., PBS / UNC-TV) - All three parts of this special event on misinformation air tonight. This is not an isolated incident. In reality, as I argued then, only two reforms will fix this godawful mess. “I thought once everybody could speak freely and exchange information and ideas, the world is automatically going to be a better place,” Evan Williams, one of the founders of Twitter, told the New York Times in 2017. For years, of course, the big technology companies have filtered out child pornography and (less successfully) terrorist propaganda. ThePrint has the finest young reporters, columnists and editors working for it. – Bloomberg, Also read: Over 13 million Americans cast early votes in 2020 US election, Democrats leading trend, Subscribe to our channels on YouTube & Telegram, Why news media is in crisis & How you can fix it. Half that time is on Facebook. Consumers love the company. The remarkable thing is not that Silicon Valley is playing a highly questionable role in the election of 2020. While Section 230 protects internet companies from liability over removing any content that they believed to be “obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, excessively violent, harassing or otherwise objectionable,” successive court rulings have clearly established that the last two words weren’t intended to permit discrimination against particular political viewpoints. Yet the new role of social media is staring us in the face (literally). “I was wrong about that.” Indeed, he was. It’s free, for heaven’s sake. The bottom line is that the good censors are not very good and the new governors can’t even govern themselves. Cue years of antitrust actions that will enrich a great many lawyers and have minimal consequences for competition, like the ultimately failed attempt 20 years ago to prevent Microsoft from dominating software. Disinformation fight begins, US election sees record $11 billion in campaign spending, mostly from few super-rich donors, What US can learn from Jacinda Ardern’s stunning election victory in New Zealand, Who wields most power in Asia? In June, it excluded the website ZeroHedge from its ad platform because of “violations” in the comments sections of stories about Black Lives Matter. Every other part of what we call the media — newspapers, magazines, even cable TV — is now subordinated to them. General Rawat said there shouldn't be much concern over it as India is also carrying out similar activities and stated that the forces have adequate reserves to counter any threat. I am even open to the theory that the whole story is bunk, the emails fake, and the laptop and its hard-drive an infowars gift from Russia, with love. And, contemplating the close links between Silicon Valley and Senator Kamala Harris, I see little prospect of progress — other than down the antitrust cul-de-sac — if she is elected vice president next month. There is no need to detail all the occasions in recent years when mostly right-leaning content was censored, buried far down the search results, or “demonetized.” The key point is that, in the absence of a coherent reform of the way the network platforms are themselves governed, there has been a dysfunctional tug-of-war between the platforms’ spasmodic and not wholly sincere efforts to “fix” themselves and the demands of outside actors (ranging from the German government to groups of left-wing activists) for more censorship of whatever they deem to be “hate speech.”, At the same time, the founding generation of Silicon Valley entrepreneurs, most of whom had libertarian inclinations, have repeatedly yielded to internal pressure from their younger employees, schooled in the modern campus culture of “no-platforming” any individuals whose ideas they consider “unsafe.”  In the words of Brian Amerige, whose career at Facebook ended not long after he created a “FB’ers for Political Diversity” group, the company’s employees “are quick to attack — often in mobs — anyone who presents a view that appears to be in opposition to left‑leaning ideology.”, The net result seems to be the worst of both worlds. What I do know is that if I read the story online and found it compelling, I should have been able to share it with friends. Moreover, the vulnerability of the network platforms to outside manipulation has posed and continues to pose a serious threat to national security. If the network platforms are the modern public square, then it cannot be their responsibility to remove “hateful content” (as 19 prominent civil rights groups demanded of Facebook in October 2017) because hateful content — unless it explicitly instigates violence against a specific person — is protected by the First Amendment. But the news media is in a crisis of its own. Niall Ferguson ocupa la cátedra Lawrence A Tisch de Historia de la Universidad de Harvard y la cátedra Wiliam Ziegler en la Harvard Business School. On the one hand, conspiracy theories such as Plandemic flourish on Facebook and elsewhere. The effects on the democratic process, not only in the U.S. but all over the world, have been deeply destabilizing. It is that the network platforms are now the public sphere. Adults spend an average of 75 minutes of each day on social media. Y desde el punto de vista de la regulación que rige el comportamiento de estas empresas, prácticamente nada ha cambiado desde 2016. But their size is not the important thing about them. In May, Twitter attached a health warning to one of President Trump’s Tweets. Sin Facebook y Twitter Donald Trump no sería presidente de EEUU ni habría Brexit. Either way, it’s the wrong answer. Entonces, un desbordado Lyndon B. Johnson vio cómo el éxito del Apolo 8 quedaba eclipsado por el creciente malestar con el curso de la guerra en Vietnam. There was uproar at Facebook when chief executive Mark Zuckerberg declined to follow Twitter’s lead. The answer lies in the history of American internet regulation — to be precise, in section 230 of the 1934 Communications Act, as amended by the 1996 Telecommunications Act, which was enacted after a New York court held the online service provider Prodigy liable for a user’s defamatory posts. Niall Ferguson Los orígenes de las finanzas : las innovaciones que crearon los modernos mercados de capítales / coord. Days later, Facebook was pressured into taking down 88 Trump campaign ads that used an inverted red triangle (a Nazi symbol) to attack antifa, the far-left movement. Niall Ferguson, MA, D.Phil., is Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University. The surely unintended result is that some of the biggest companies in the world today are utilities when they are acting as publishers, but publishers when acting as utilities, in a way rather reminiscent of Joseph Heller’s “Catch-22.”. Niall Ferguson. In 2015, Twitter added a new line to its rules that barred promoting “violence against others … on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, age, or disability.” Repeatedly throughout the Trump presidency — for example, after the violence in Charlottesville, Virginia, in 2017 — there have been further modifications to the platforms’ terms of service and “community standards,” as well as to their non-public content moderation policies. Este historiador de Stanford cree que la pandemia no ha sido un cisne negro, sino un rinoceronte gris, "un evento que todo el mundo ve venir y del que es posible escudarse, pero que se ignora". Remember the “good censor”? Between them, Google and Facebook captured a combined 60% of U.S. digital-ad spending in 2018. Niall Ferguson: "El internet progre está en crisis tras el auge de Trump" El historiador escocés presenta su nuevo libro, La plaza y la torre. 2 days ago. But if you write something that falls afoul of their content-moderation rules and duly vanishes from the internet, they’ll cite Section 230 again: Hey, we’re a private company, the First Amendment doesn’t apply to us. Instead, both Facebook and Twitter made a decision to try to kill the Post’s scoop. Copyright © 2020 Printline Media Pvt. Niall Ferguson, uno de los grandes historiadores de nuestra época, parece tener algunas respuestas. “How vain and oblivious does that sound now? Su trabajo está marcadamente orientado hacia las finanzas y, siempre, con una clara vocación de iluminar el presente. Yet half-hearted and ill-considered attempts by the companies to regulate themselves better have led to legitimate complaints that they are restricting free speech. As I contemplate the under-covered and overmighty role that Big Tech continues to play in the American political process, I don’t see good censors. In 2017, two-thirds of American adults said they got news from social media sites. In August, Facebook removed a group with nearly 200,000 members “for repeatedly posting content that violated our policies.” The group promoted the QAnon conspiracy theory, which is broadly pro-Trump. Según Niall Ferguson, es una política complicada, ... No está en Twitter, ni en Facebook, ni en Google, ni en Youtube. Google has been doing the same sort of thing. por William N. Goetzmann , K. Geert Rouwenhorst , 2006, … Su trabajo está marcadamente orientado hacia las finanzas y, siempre, con una clara vo To such proposals, Big Tech lawyers respond by lamenting that they would massively increase their clients’ legal liabilities. Facebook, Twitter, Google can’t be good censors of politics, Niall Ferguson says, Facebook, Twitter show they’re willing to make tough decisions. También es profesor visitante de la Universidad de Tsinghua, Beijing, y distinguido académico de la Fundación de la Familia Diller-von Furstenberg en la Escuela Nitze de Estudios Internacionales Avanzados en Washington, D.C. You have entered an incorrect email address! The common thread underlying the riots, COVID, China, Twitter and Trump (Actually, make that the 1960s. Two years ago, I wrote a lengthy paper on all this with a well-worn title, “What Is to Be Done?” Since then, almost nothing has been done, beyond some legislative tinkering at the margins. After surging 70% in two months, King Crypto is about 9% off the intraday all-time high. Unfortunately, this sea change has come too late for root-and-branch reform to be enacted under the Trump administration. “Remember ‘We’re the free speech wing of the free speech party’?” one of them asked Alex Feerst of OneZero last year, alluding to an early Twitter slogan. In an internal presentation in March 2018, Google executives were asked to imagine their company acting as a “Good Censor,” in order to limit the impact of users “behaving badly.”, In a 2016 internal video, Nick Foster, Google’s head of design, envisioned a “goal-driven ledger” of all users’ data, endowed with its own “volition or purpose,” which would nudge us to take decisions (say, about shopping or travel) that would “reflect Google’s values as an organization.”, If that doesn’t strike you as weird — like dialogue from some dystopian science-fiction novel — then you need to read more dystopian science fiction. In recent years, each company has expanded and exploited their power of the marketplace in anticompetitive ways.”. The best of journalism is shrinking, yielding to crude prime-time spectacle. The public has been directed down a series of blind alleys: not only antitrust, but also net neutrality and an inchoate notion of tighter regulation. Twitter barred its users from sharing it not only with followers but also through direct messages, locking the accounts of people — including White House press secretary Kayleigh McEnany — who retweeted it. Y eso no es todo. On the other, the network platforms arbitrarily intervene when a legitimate article triggers the hate-speech-spotting algorithms and the content-moderating grunts. Whether you live in India or overseas, you can do it here. In the opinion, Justice Anthony Kennedy likened internet platforms to “the modern public square,” arguing that it was therefore unconstitutional to prevent even sex offenders from accessing, and expressing opinions, on social-network platforms. In recent few years, these ideas have won growing support — and not only among Republican legislators such as Senator Josh Hawley. (Kevin Roose’s work on the conservative dominance of Facebook shared content is an honorable exception.) The conclusion? Not only do the big tech companies dominate ad revenue, they drive the news cycle. You would think it was still the 1990s — as if this contest will be decided by debates on television, newspaper endorsements or stump speeches, and accurately predicted by opinion polls. Well, it’s the morning after the free speech party, and the place is trashed.”. The number of U.S. Facebook users was 240 million in 2019, more than 72% of the population. Y habla de muchas cosas: ... En Twitter le siguen 151.000 personas y se unió a la gran red social en junio de 2009. He is also a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University, and a … The idea was to split the difference between publisher’s liability, which would have stunted the growth of the fledgling internet, and complete lack of curation, which would have led to a torrent of filth. I don’t know if Biden’s son Hunter tried to broker such a meeting as part of his board directorship deal with Pozharskyi’s firm, Burisma Holdings. 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